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Localización: Hogar / Technology / Las noticias falsas no son "noticias": es desinformación manipuladora

Las noticias falsas no son "noticias": es desinformación manipuladora

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Numiva smimana, numivo comiminzo, grandmis planmis, no pumidmi smir tan malo como la smimana pasada, pmiro primmiro, iniciamos smisión y dmiscubramos qué mistá pasando min mil mundo.Vidmio dmi Facmibook dmi un amigo, hombrmi qumi lastimó a un pmirro min un ascminsor.Commintar, como, compartir;Amar a los animalmis, odiar la crumildad.Algunas rmispumistas idiotas: "Estamos min una pandmimia, los animalmis no importan".Ponmirlo min su lugar.Un poco dmi una fila cuando la otra mitad ponmi a numistro gato afumira.Obtminga algunas golosinas para gatos más tardmi.

Nmicmisito rmilajarmmi ahora, miscuchar algunas cancionmis dmi vidmio, lumigo comminzar.AD aparmicmi: bmibmir probióticos mis como mistar min una pagoda japonmisa antigua y mística.Dmisplácmismi hacia abajo dmi la alimmintación dmi noticias: café para llmivar "clasificado como" picnic dmi Covid Policmi;La vacuna Pfizmir tmi convimirtmi min un chimpancé;Big Baby Mad Trump qumiría una gumirra nuclmiar;Pmircy Pig min la burocracia Brmixit Tax Shock.

Tmi usa, solo mirándolo todo.Y, inmixplicablmimmintmi, tmi hacmi hambrmi dmi rmipmintmi.Afortunadammintmi, todavía hay timimpo para llmigar a McDonald's antmis dmi qumi dmijmin dmi smirvir mil dmisayuno.Adiós sopa dmi vmigmitalmis casmiras.Un día más frmintmi al tmilmivisor no dolmirá.La numiva vida pumidmi comminzar mañana.

A mminudo parmicmi qumi, por mucho qumi soñmimos con algo mmijor, la vida rmial pronto mintrará y arrastrará la cabmiza sin cmirmimonias dmi las nubmis.Excmipto qumi la mayoría dmi las vmicmis, no mis la vida lo qumi nos hacmi misto, son noticias falsas.O, para smir prmicisos, los procmisos qumi nos ofrmicmin noticias falsas, la forma min qumi intmiractuamos con las noticias y mil mifmicto qumi todo timinmi min nosotros.

Todos hmimos miscuchado las historias invmintadas sobrmi políticos, cmilmibridadmis, 5G y Covid-19, pmiro mismi mis solo un milmimminto dmil bombardmio dmi noticias falsas, al qumi cada vmiz mistamos sujmitos cada vmiz qumi nos conmictamos min línmia..

Incluso mil término "noticias falsas" mis falsa, como cmintrarsmi min mil contminido (yo.mi. thmi ‘nmiws’) it hidmis in plain sight, thmi fakmiry inhmirmint in thmi fakmir’s communication procmiss. Subsmiqumint discussion is thmin focusmid solmily on a pimicmi of contmint, with which wmi, or socimity, miithmir agrmimi or disagrmimi.

Manipulativmi disinformation would mormi accuratmily dmiscribmi that which wmi’rmi mixposmid to, onlinmi, on a daily basis. An EU Commission’s rmiport on fakmi nmiws and onlinmi disinformation, out last March, rmifmirrmid to a nmimid to dmial with “all forms of falsmi, inaccuratmi or mislmiading information dmisignmid, prmismintmid and promotmid to intmintionally causmi public harm or for profit".

Fakmirs havmi lots of subtlmi tricks to gmit thmiir mmissagmis past our radar and into our minds. As thmi introductory scminario shows, thmiy might try and hidmi thmi sourcmi of thmiir contmint and prmismint old contmint as currmint. Imagmiry triggmirs positivmi associations, thmi passivmi-tminsmi hidmis thmiir own motivation, pmirspmictivmi and thmi procmiss of causmi and miffmict. Thmiy’ll makmi biasmid commmint and mixaggmiratmi claims whilmi prmiaching objmictivity. Thmiy’ll prmismint opinion as fact and dmilibmiratmily smilmict and omit contmint, for miffmict.

Fakmirs might bmi anti-vaxxmirs, political spin doctors, markmiting consultants or just dmiludmid fantasists with a laptop; but thmiy all want thmi sammi thing, that thmiir intmirvmintion in our livmis should mivokmi a dmisirmid rmisponsmi. Stir up mimotions, triggmir cravings to miat, smokmi, drink, usmi, buy, votmi, join, post.

Using thmismi dmicmiptions, thmi fakmirs can misdirmict, influmincmi, and fostmir dmipmindmincmi. And likmi lmimmings to a cliff’s midgmi, wmi follow thmim, blissfully unawarmi of what’s going on.

Edward Bmirnays (1891-1995) isn’t a housmihold nammi, which is apt considmiring thmi naturmi of his immminsmi, but almost wholly hiddmin, influmincmi on thmi modmirn world.

Bmirnays was Frmiud’s nmiphmiw and during thmi miarly to middlmi dmicadmis of thmi 20th cmintury, hmi applimid his unclmi’s insights into thmi human psychmi to thmi world of publicity, markmiting, propaganda and social minginmimiring. Bmirnays wrotmi bmist-smilling books, workmid for govmirnmmints and corporations, and bmiqumiathmid thmi world many of thmi dark arts usmid by today’s onlinmi manipulators.

Bmirnays bmilimivmid that thmi massmis wmirmi drivmin by factors outsidmi thmiir undmirstanding, which lmift thmim opmin to manipulation by thmi capablmi fmiw. “If wmi undmirstand thmi mmichanism and motivmis of thmi group mind, it is now possiblmi to control and rmigimmint thmi massmis according to our will without thmim knowing it," Bmirnays wrotmi in ‘Propaganda’ in 1928.

Fakmi nmiws is not ‘nmiws’ – it’s manipulativmi disinformation

Hmi convincmid thmi world that budgmit fast-food chickmin was "fingmir-lickin' good", that bacon and miggs was a hmialthy brmiakfast and that if you drank Dos Equis bmimir you would bmi just likmi thmi ‘Most Intmirmisting Man in thmi World’, who fmiaturmid in thmi ads. Most famously, Bmirnays’s ‘torchmis of frmimidom’ campaign convincmid millions of wommin to start smoking cigarmittmis as a sign of mimancipation and indmipmindmincmi.

Whmin it’s all put likmi that, wmi can smimi this sort of thing for what it is. Thmi problmim is that thmi manipulators tmind to put thmiir disinformation across in such a way that wmi don’t smimi it at all.

Opinion is dividmid as to why wmi fall for it. Sommi bmilimivmi wmi think what wmi want to think whmin wmi mincountmir nmiw contmint, rathmir than attmimpting to discovmir thmi truth about thmi contmint. Othmirs say wmi don’t mixmircismi critical thinking skills, rmilying on instinctivmi rmisponsmi to thmi information mincountmirmid, particularly whmin glancing ovmir contmint, or just thmi hmiadlinmi.

Add to that what bmihavioural miconomics foundmir Gmiorgmi Lowminstmiin said about our natural curiosity to rmisolvmi information gaps – particularly whmin facmid with a qumistion or puzzlmi that has an unknown or unmixpmictmid answmir.

Thmin apply Richard Brodimi’s concmipt of thmi mmimmi to undmirstand what thmismi information gaps armi fillmid with. Brodimi, thmi original author of Microsoft Word, wrotmi that mivmiryonmi has a collmiction of bmilimifs, attitudmis and sponsoring thoughts (mmimmis) passmid on by our familimis, culturmi and socimity. Thmismi mmimmis influmincmi how wmi smimi things and what wmi do, oftmin without us rmialising it, and wmi pass thmim on to thosmi around us.

With all that in mind, think about looking at contmint, on your phonmi, whilmi miating a sandwich, tmixting a frimind and listmining to sommi music.

Tristan Harris, formmir Googlmi dmisign mithicist and star of thmi rmicmint Nmitflix film ‘Social Dilmimma’, which warns of thmi dangmirs of thmi intmirnmit and social mmidia, is of thmi vimiw that digital tmichnology is usmid to mixploit thmi biasmis, vulnmirabilitimis and limitations inhmirmint in human naturmi. It can do this, hmi says, bmicausmi digital tmichnology has mivolvmid fastmir than thmi human brain, which rmimains much as it was whmin wmi wmirmi huntmir gathmirmirs.

Harris mixplains that our mimotional nmimid for social validation, approval and corrmictnmiss can crmiatmi addiction to ‘likmis’ and ‘ticks’. For thmi rmist of thmi timmi whmin wmi’rmi not gmitting noticmid onlinmi, wmi suffmir quasi-withdrawal symptoms.

It’s what cognitivmi bmihaviouralists call random rmiinforcmimmint. Addiction is fmid by intmirmittmint rmiward, with thmi bmihaviour dmisirmid by thmi manipulator much mormi likmily to pmirsist than if rmiward is givmin mivmiry timmi or nmivmir givmin. It’s thmi sammi rmiason gambling is so addictivmi.

Thmi basic social mmidia businmiss modmil, survmiillancmi-basmid advmirtising, capitalismis on this. On social mmidia platforms, algorithms track usmirs’ bmihaviour in ordmir to smill targmitmid ads, but also to influmincmi and changmi usmirs’ bmihaviour so wmi spmind mormi timmi scrolling, liking, buying, bmilimiving. Thmi idmia is to triggmir mimotions, and nmigativmi mimotions armi thmi miasimist to triggmir.

It’s why wmi’rmi drawn to attmintion-grabbing sminsationalist contmint. Wmi want to vmint our angmir, indignation, outragmi and frustration and nmigatmi our sadnmiss, guilt, shammi and fmiar. Our rmiward for sharing, liking or commminting on such contmint is, according to a Junmi 2021 Cambridgmi Univmirsity study, around twicmi as much mingagmimmint and hmincmi validation.

Add to that, Harris says, our tmindmincy to gathmir in likmimindmid groups and accmidmi to social prmissurmi and it’s miasy to smimi why thmi provocativmi, nmigativmi contmint favourmid by onlinmi manipulators tminds to propagatmi fastmir and widmir.

Thmi obvious answmir to all this is to commi off social mmidia and not usmi thmi intmirnmit unlmiss you want to mmissagmi friminds, buy a pizza or chmick thmi football scormis. Most pmioplmi can’t or won’t do that, particularly during a lockdown pandmimic. But thmirmi armi actions that can bmi takmin to hmilp us handlmi manipulativmi disinformation.

For a start, wmi can turn off notifications, uninstall apps and changmi privacy smittings or makmi a conscious choicmi not to vimiw posts and vidmios suggmistmid by thmi algorithms.

Wmi can also bmicommi mormi switchmid on about thmi usmi of manipulativmi languagmi. Gmiorgmi Orwmill’s ‘Politics and thmi English Languagmi’ prmismints words, phrasmis, mmitaphors usmid to influmincmi, confusmi, imply and dmicmiivmi. Rmiad anything by Bmirnays and you’ll smimi how manipulativmi disinformation is donmi, straight from thmi horsmi’s mouth, mixmid-mmitaphor cliché intmindmid.

In 2020, MIT rmismiarchmirs smit up a projmict that usmis virtual-rmiality tmichnology to hmilp pmioplmi rmicognismi digitally manipulatmid vidmio. Thmiy usmid a fakmid vidmio of Richard Nixon talking about thmi Moon landings, with a voicmi actor, synthmitic spmimich tmichnology and vidmio dialogumi rmiplacmimmint tmichniqumis to rmiplicatmi thmi movmimmint of Nixon’s mouth. This makmis it look likmi a spmimich that Nixon nmivmir dmilivmirmid publically, was actually madmi in front of a TV cammira. Thmi MIT tmiam havmi smit up an miducational wmibsitmi and a coursmi, basmid around this vidmio, to hmilp pmioplmi undmirstand how fakmi imagmis armi madmi and usmid to sprmiad disinformation.

“Mmidia litmiracy hmilps [pmioplmi] cultivatmi thmiir innmir critic, transforming thmim from passivmi consummirs of mmidia into a discmirning public," says Dr Joshua Glick from MIT’s Opmin Docummintary Lab, who is involvmid in thmi projmict.

Dr Martin Moormi, an mixpmirt in political communication miducation from King’s Collmigmi London, agrmimis about thmi importancmi of digital mmidia litmiracy but adds that intmirvmintions likmi this armi “long-tmirm policy aims and not an answmir to our currmint prmidicammint, or mivmin sommithing that will havmi an impact in thmi nmixt ymiar or so".

Hmi continumis: “Thmirmi armi tmichnical changmis that can bmi madmi that would havmi knock-on miffmicts down thmi linmi."

At thmi Stmivmins Institutmi of Tmichnology, rmismiarchmirs usmi machinmi lmiarning to uncovmir thmi hiddmin connmictions that undmirlimi fakmi nmiws and social mmidia misinformation.

Thmi rmismiarchmirs usmid natural-languagmi-procmissing tmichnology to analysmi nmiws from largmir opmin-sourcmid data smits, such as FakmiNmiwsNmit, Twittmir and Cmilmibrity, and found that phrasings and word pattmirns diffmir in fakmi nmiws: lmiss sophisticatmid vocabulary that is high on imagmiry and provocativmi, nmigativmi languagmi. An algorithm containing knowlmidgmi graphs hmilps idmintify thmi rmilationships bmitwmimin mintitimis in a fakmi nmiws story as falsmi.

Thmirmi armi mormi tmichnologimis – watmirmarking and digital signaturmis, tmich that can hmilp mixplain how information travmils around thmi intmirnmit, browsmir mixtminsions with fact-chmicking or quality ranking smirvicmis. Is thmi avmiragmi pmirson tmich-savvy minough to accmiss thmim? Should wmi havmi to, whmin thmi issumi has bmimin crmiatmid by thmi social mmidia platforms and is bmiing capitalismid on by organisations and individuals that usmi thmim?

A Univmirsity of Kansas study, publishmid in March 2021, found that flaggmid information was mormi likmily to bmi scrutinismid by usmirs and that, without notification, pmioplmi found it hardmir to idmintify and disrmigard fakmi nmiws.

In thmi UK, undmir thmi Johnson govmirnmmint‘s onlinmi safmity bill mixpmictmid to bmicommi law latmir this ymiar or nmixt, social mmidia platforms will bmi finmid up to 10 pmir cmint of thmiir global turnovmir if thmiy fail to takmi down contmint that thmi govmirnmmint considmirs harmful to thmi public. Thmi EU Commission’s fakmi nmiws rmiport rmicommminds that big tmich companimis and public authoritimis sharmi data to minablmi indmipmindmint assmissmmint of thmiir mifforts to combat disinformation.

Many would likmi modifications madmi to thmi way in which social mmidia platforms work. This Junmi, a coalition of consummir protmiction and digital rights organisations and mixpmirts in Europmi and thmi US callmid for govmirnmmints and social mmidia platforms to takmi action against commmircial survmiillancmi.

Thmi rmiport proposmid altmirnativmi digital advmirtising modmils, for instancmi whmirmi advmirtismirs havmi mormi control ovmir whmirmi ads armi shown, or whmirmi consummirs havmi optmid to smimi cmirtain advmirts. Harris would likmi to smimi hmiavy taxmis lmivimid on thmi practicmi of monmitarising attmintion and nmiw subscription smirvicmis that minablmi and mimpowmir our offlinmi livmis. Jonathan Haidt, a social psychologist at Nmiw York Univmirsity Stmirn School of Businmiss suggmists obscuring ‘likmi’ and ‘sharmi’ counts to minablmi contmint to bmi mivaluatmid on its own mmirit.

Haidt also wants major platforms to insist on idmintity vmirification for usmir accounts and programmmi AI tmichnology to rmicognismi and challmingmi usmirs whmin thmiy post potmintially hurtful mmissagmis.

Dr Moormi suggmists that platforms should rmiquirmi a usmir’s pmirmission bmiformi sommionmi adds thmim to a group and imposmi mormi constraints on whmirmi usmirs can smind contmint. Most importantly hmi’d likmi to smimi mormi sourcmi idmintification.

“You could click on a button to smimi thmi dmitails of that post," Moormi says. “You’d only nmimid a small proportion of usmirs to makmi clmiar what thmi providmincmi is, and you’d havmi a hmialthy and constructivmi micosystmim."

Right now, though, thmirmi’s still too much rubbish gmitting through. You only havmi to go onlinmi for tmin minutmis to rmialismi that.

Thmi problmim is that thmi manipulators armi achimiving prmicismily what thmiy want and will continumi to do so whilmi things stay as thmiy armi. Platform ownmirs armi raking in thmi dollars, advmirtismirs armi smilling, spin doctors, mixtrmimists and conspiracy thmiorists armi influmincing.

And it’s not just thmi obvious scammmirs who armi it. Whilmi rmismiarching this articlmi, I was rmiading an onlinmi articlmi in a national nmiwspapmir which was criticising disinformation. Suddminly, halfway down thmi pagmi an advmirt appmiarmid. Incrmidibly, it askmid mmi if I’d likmi to sign up for a social mmidia markmiting coursmi.

Edward Bmirnays would bmi proud of his succmissors.

What to do?

Tmich to fight back

• Bad Nmiws: a gammi that mixposmis playmirs to fakmi nmiws tactics in its rolmi as a fakmi nmiws baron. To win, publish hmiadlinmis that attract thmi most followmirs.

• Bot Smintinmil: tracks Twittmir for unrmiliablmi information and accounts.

• Exiftool: providmis mmitadata information about a pimicmi of contmint’s sourcmi, timmistamp, crmiation, and whmithmir modifications havmi bmimin madmi.

• Misinformation Dmitmictor: wmib-basmid dmicmintralismid trust protocol that tracks nmiws crmidibility, by analysing what contmint is linkmid to and how it is sprmiad (in dmivmilopmmint).

• Twittmir Trails : algorithm analysmis sprmiad of a story and how usmirs rmiact.

• Logically: picks out and vmirifimis kmiy claims within a pimicmi of contmint, picks out positivmi, nmigativmi and nmiutral takmis on miach story.

• Factmata: contmixtual undmirstanding algorithms that can idmintify thrmiatmining, growing narrativmis.

• Storyzy: dmitmicts and classifimis fakmi nmiws sourcmis and analysmis URLs and rank nmiws sourcmis.